The extraction, production or exploitation of petroleum has to be made according to the own characteristics of the deposit.
For putting a well to produce slide down a cannon and the pipe is perforated of a covering to the height of the formations where the deposit is founded. The petroleum rum by the splits to the well and is extracted by a pipe of fewer diameters called "tubing" o r "tubería de producción"(production pipe).
If the deposit has own energy, generated by the subterranean pressure and the elements of the petroleum (gas and water), this will out by its own. In this case, is putted in the well’s head an equipment called "árbol de navidad", which has some valves for regulating the petroleum’s way.
IF does not exists this pressure, will be used another ways of extractions. The more common has been the "balancín" or "machín", which, using a balance permanent, putting in action a bomb in the bottom of the well, entraining the petroleum to the surface.
El petroleum extracted come from with sediments, water and natural gas, that’s why should be construed previously, the facilities of production, separation and storage.
when those elements were separated, the petroleum is sent to the storage tanks and to the oleoductos, that send it to the refineries.
The natural gas associated with the petroleum for being used in the same field and/or sent as "gas seco" (dry gas) to the consumer centers by the gasoductos (pipe of gas).
Gasoline Plant in charge of the company Pacifpetrol
In the case of a deposit that contains only natural gas, it has to be a special installation and the required equipments for send it to the consumer centers.
The only way to Know if there is petroleum in the place that the geologic investigate indicated, is using the perforation of a well
The well profundity depends of the region and the profundities of the geological structure or the chose formation with possibilities of contain petroleum. According with the well-projected profundity, the formations that will be and the own conditions of the Subsoil, will be used the more indicate perforation equipment.
The principal elements that conform the perforation equipment and its function are the followings:
Perforation tower or drill
Is a metallic structure where all the perforation work is concentrated.
Tubing or "sarta" of perforation
The steel tubs are united as the perforation increase.
The Borers perforate the subsoil, letting the well’s aperture.
In the Malacate the cable is coiled and unrolled, and this unity let down and stand up the "sarta" of perforation and also supports their weight.
Is the place that prepares, storage, bombard, inject and circulate a perforation mud that lubricates the borer, holds the well’s walls and take out to the surface the solid material that is perforated.
The cement system
The cement System prepares and inject special cement that is used for glue the well’s wall and the steel tubes that conforms the covering of the same material.
Is the conjunct of unities that print the motors strong that required all the perforation process.
The time the perforation of a well depends on the program profundity and the geologies conditions of the subsoil. In average is estimated between two to six months.
The perforation is made in two parts, so the well in the higher is wide and in the bottom is narrow. Giving a strong structure avoiding landslide, using borers and pipes the less side in each section.
During the perforation is so important the circulation of the "lodo de perforación" (perforation mud), giving a strong position to the well’s walls put cold the borer and take out to the surface all the material.
The mud is injecting by the pipe and the borer and ascends by the annular space that exists between the pipes and the well’s walls
The material that is thrown is used for take samples for knowing which frame is passing and if it is hidrocarburos.
During the perforation also take out electronics register that helps to know the ways of formation and the physical characteristics of the rocks, like density, porosity, waters contends, petroleum and natural gas.